We're rethinking the Bitcoin experience, a redesign of the
tools people and organizations use to secure their Bitcoin.
Each person is a unique combination of things they know, devices
they own, physical places they have access to, and people they
How individuals secure their Bitcoin should reflect this but most
users get recommended a one-size fits all setup: a single hardware
wallet with a pin number and a backup physical copy of the seed
Using more powerful access policies such as
multisignature, remains too difficult for most users and
comes with severe challenges.
Multisig wallets are protected by multiple keys where you need to
reach a threshold number of signatures to spend the funds. Bitcoin
protected behind a 2-of-3 requires any two of the multisig's
three devices to sign.
With breakthroughs in cryptography like FROST and
Bitcoin's taproot upgrade, we are re-thinking how people
approach their security.
Our technology is making multisig a snap; easy for everyone. From
individuals and families, to large companies.
Frostsnap is a vision that is first being distilled into
user-friendly Frostsnap signing devices, and development is well
Configurable Security Policies
Users need strong security that suits their lives, needs, and
Security that is clearly defined: access though a threshold number
of devices. While also having adaptable access policies that are
flexible for change and experimentation.
Users should be able to change devices belonging to their
multisignature, without having to make any onchain transactions.
With Frostsnap devices, users will be able to add new signers to
your key. If you lose a device, you can replace it.
If a device is stolen, then you can make every other device
incompatible with the compromised one.
We can adjust our multisig as necessary, while still controlling
the same Bitcoin wallet and public keys.
Blending into the crowd is an important boost for privacy on the
public Bitcoin blockchain. Our transactions should be
indistinguishable from other transactions in order to help
maintain our privacy.
Frostsnap transactions will be safer from prying eyes, no one can
tell that the Bitcoin is protected by a multisignature; or that it
may be underpinning a federated mint, contract, or interacting
with the lightning network.
We want a world where people are comfortable self-custodying
significant sums of bitcoin.
Access to funds needs to be well defined and easy to understand,
with no gotchas or excess complexity.
With Frostsnap devices, the only requirement is that you keep a
threshold number of devices, or their simple backups. That's
it. With a threshold number of devices, you can always derive the
secret key and recover all funds.
Recovery should be worry free and flexible. If a device is lost
then it can simply be replaced, without any on-chain transactions
or need to create a new wallet.
Choosing a stronger security setup should not come at a cost.
Being efficient with our onchain data is a necessity going
forward. In high fee environments, it's crucial that
transaction sizes are optimized to be as small as possible.
No matter the threshold or number of devices you use to secure
your Bitcoin, the transaction fees using Frostsnap will be the
same. No cost deterrent towards enacting a security policy that
suits your needs.
Cryptography Empowering Individuals
You should be able to use the same workflow you use to sign
bitcoin transactions to sign other things such as Nostr.
Individuals use signatures to spend funds, prove identity,
authenticate communications, sign documents. With the Frostsnap
workflow and a key that is shared amongst multiple devices, users
will have a strong security foundation for using further tools.
Organizations too should be comfortable managing their own
With technology that distributes access to keys, we can share the
responsibility of custody among company operators. Leaving no
single point of failure.
One of the biggest concerns surrounding cryptographic tech for an
organization is the fear of the key becoming compromised, or
interns going rogue. Distributing the security of keys extends to
Organizations can better secure their interactions with users,
providing stamps of digital authenticity that can be verified
against a fortified and trustworthy digital identity.
Organizations need distributed control over their social media, a
company's Nostr social media presence which is shared amongst
multiple employees each with certain access policies.
FROST: Flexible Round-Optimized Schnorr Threshold
(Komlo and Goldberg 2020) Signatures are at the frontier of
multisignature cryptography. We are building out FROST and related
research to bring the next generation of bitcoin custody tech.
parties each have their own secret key share, but together they
control a single public key.
FROST is an entirely off-chain protocol. The multisignature's
threshold nature is formed through mathematics and communication
rounds between participants.
Over the past year+, we have been developing and iterating upon an
implementation of FROST, adapting with latest research.
This field is moving quickly. We take now as the perfect time to
Existing Multisigs: FROST Fixes This
Multisignatures exist on Bitcoin today as
script multisigs, programmed spending conditions
But these multisigs present significant challenges and leave much
to be desired. FROST on the other hand, makes multisig easy while
addressing these problems:
Script multisigs are fixed, you can not add signers without
creating a new wallet and moving funds.
With FROST you can add or remove signers after key generation
while keeping the key the same.
Script multisigs are revealed when spending, and leave enormous
footprints making it easy to trace the flow of bitcoin belonging
to an entity.
A group signing under FROST produces a single signature, making
transactions indistinguishable from other taproot
transactions on the blockchain.
With script multisig you need to worry about storing extra
metadata. A significant user experience pain that scares people
away from multisig, and leads users to
Crucially, with FROST you don't have to worry about storing
additional metadata about your wallet. You only need a threshold
number of devices (or their backups), nothing more.
Script multisigs have costly fees when compared to single
signature wallets. For a 2-of-3 script multisignature this usually
equates to transactions that are roughly double in size than
single signature transactions.
A FROST wallet will pay the same fees as single signature
wallets. No matter the number of devices or the threshold of
your key, the transaction fees will be the same.
The Frostsnap team is currently comprised of
Nick Farrow -
@utxoclub - CEO &
Adam Mashrique -
Hardware Lead & Engineer
Lloyd Fournier -
@LLFOURN - Architect
We are looking to expand in the near future.
We'll be sharing more soon.
Watch us build on twitter:
Check out our code on Github:
To learn more about FROST, have a listen to Nick's podcast
with Stephan Livera:
SLP476 What is FROST? Is it the future of Bitcoin Multi Sig?.
For our Nostr profile, please await our team's FROST keygen!
We need to make self-custody easy, tailored, and secure for
-Frostsnap team 2023